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Reflection and Refraction

• Light wave = light ray
• Light rays reflect off mirrors and most other things
• Specular reflection = when light reflects off smooth shiny surfaces at the same angle, which gives a clear reflection.
• Diffuse reflection/scattering = when light is scattered in lots of different directions, therefore rough directions look dull.
• ANGLE OF INCIDENCE =
• These angles are always measured from thenormal and light ray .
• Ray diagram:

• Refraction = when light bends as it crosses a boundary (from one transparent medium to another)
• Light can’t pass through opaque objects (not see through)
• Medium = any substance light travels through
• Light goes from less dense to denser medium = light bends towards normal (air to glass)
• light goes from denser to less dense medium = light bends away from normal (glass to air)
• what happens when light hits a glass block?

1. Light hits glass at an angle = slows down and bends

2. Ray bends towards normal

3. Light ray leaving the glass block = ray bends away from normal

How long have you…? (present perfect 4) Exercises

Use the information given to create questions beginning with ‘How long…?’

• It is snowing.

• The weather is shining.

• John and Kate are married.

• My brother has gone on holiday.

• My aunty and uncle live in Canada.

• My sister is a teacher.

• I work at the chemist.

• I’ve known Susan since I was a baby.

• Jonathan is learning to speak to Mandarin.

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Fill in the missing gaps in the sentences using the present perfect (=has/have + past participle)

• I have known Kate a long time.

• My brother has been playing the piano he was 11 years old.

• My mum and dad on holiday to America. They

gone since last Sunday.

• I Ben and Emma since primary school.

We to the same primary and secondary school.

• My sister learning to speak French because she
is going to France next month.

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Use the appropriate words in the missing gaps.

have you lived       lives      to

has been       works        have known

I have bought       have worked.

• My sister in Spain. She is studying Spanish

with her friend Rosie. I Rosie since I was 5.

• Spencer like with Jamie. They have worked

together for 2 years.

• How long in Australia?

• a new dress for prom.

• He to Thorpe park.

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Challenge: Create 4 of your own questions beginning with ‘How long……?’

1.

2.

3.

4.

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With the decision to try.” Gail Dever

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